An All-inclusive Videography Guide for Beginners - Part 2 [Technical Aspect]


Videos have taken content marketing by storm. Just because a motion picture is so easily digestible, the audience is now nuts about it. Also, it is natural for budding content creators to experiment with it just, imitating the trends of the film industry. 
But films have witnessed a total transformation since their inception in 1877. With the changes accompanied by disruptive technology and types of equipment, there is a lot more to know about video making than before. Since it is a very vast domain, with cinematography, filmmaking and videography all in the loop, knowing the fundamentals becomes quintessential. Adding to this, creating video content for an audience with changing viewing preference is an added quirk. Hence, all the more reason to go knee-deep into this art. 
There are many pages to flip through and vast areas to touch before you call yourself the best director of photography or filmmaker. Sit back and get your reading lens on and flip through our videography guide- Part 1 (Fundamental Elements). As you absorb all that information on the basic elements of making a video film, this guide is a breakdown on the technical front.
Before pooling in all your resources buying the wrong gear, read, educate yourself and experiment.
This handbook gives you an insight into all the tools, the types of camera equipment, their comparison, the best camera settings and editing software. Gear up! We are about to make videography a lot less simple and a lot more interesting. 

How are viral videos made?

The basic framework of viral or quality videos comprises of two elements:

  1. A good mix of the seven elements of videography
  2. Requisite videography equipment

Our previous guide gave you a nose dive into the seven elements of video-making- location, dialogues, location, costumes, action, sound effects, props, and characters. While you get those elements ready, it's time to select and shop for gear. 
But before you begin, here are some preliminary must know. 

A Breakdown of Terminologies- Videographer vs Cinematographer vs Filmmaking 

It’s only natural to confuse between videography, cinematography and filmmaking. These three domains are different but related.
Videography lies at the base and is concerned with recording raw footage. The role of a cinematographer is to frame each shot, place visual elements wisely to realize the vision of the screen-writer and add emotion to tell a story. Lastly, the filmmaker ties the whole thing together by deciding the tone of the entire production and managing the actors.  
Our infographic explains the distinction much clearly.
Now, the question of significance crops up- why is it important to know the difference between these domains? 
Irrespective of the fact that you are a full-blown production house or only a freelance filmmaker, this knowledge helps you realize and define your creative calling. 
Alongside it helps to know what all goes into producing a quality film- the processes and techniques. Ergo, a base understanding is primary before you get into shooting or editing videos. 
Now that you decide whether you want to become a videographer, cinematography or filmmaker, it is time to pick the equipment accordingly. 

Videography Equipments at a Glance 

As you start out with videography, here is a checklist of all the equipments you will need:

  • Camera 

camera

  • Spare batteries

Spare-batteries

  • Camera lenses 

Camera-lenses

  • Video lighting kit and light reflectors

Video-lighting-kit-and-light-reflectors

  • Tripod

Tripod

  • Microphones- USB mics, lavalier mics, wireless and shotgun mics

Microphones

  • Memory card 

Memory-card

Whew! That's a whole lot of core accessories for recording footage. Stick around as we help you choose the best. 

The Best Videography Cameras

The-Best-Videography-Cameras

First things first- you don't need a special something to shoot videos. Cameras, with their versatility, are the safest bet when it comes to recording. As technology advances, cameras seamlessly capture pictures and record videos. But a handful of photography tips will surely give you an edge. 
As you begin with filmmaking, DSLR (Digital Single Lens Reflex) is your best friend. It is superb for clicking pictures and marvellously records videos too. Be it a wedding videography gig or recording at a sunset Tuesday, DSLRs are the best. They are versatile, low cost, offer high-resolution formats, come with autofocus, offer low light shooting and 
The digital shooting experience will give you enough room to ease into video shooting. But which is the best DSLR camera? 

The Best DSLR Camera 2020 for Shooting Video 

The-Best-DSLR-Camera-2020-for-Shooting-Video

DSLR cameras are having their time in the sun right now. They are the preferred choice for photography as well as for creative video making.
A range of DSLRs to choose from includes Canon EOS 80D, Canon 70D, Canon EOS 90D, Canon EOS Rebel T6, Sony Alpha a7 III and Nikon D3300. 

The Perfect Camera Settings for Video Making 

The-Perfect-Camera-Settings-for-Video-Making

You may choose to make films on autofocus mode. But knowledge of each singular element will give you an edge. You could seamlessly adjust and create the best ambience for each video you make. Hence, cameras come with those dull and boring user manuals. If you didn’t feel like opening up and reading one of those, we bring you the best camera settings for video making.
Be a little patient as we head into the technicalities of shooting a video. All these elements are significant and decide the quality of your production. 

The Exposure Triangle 

The-Exposure-Triangle

Before you hold your camera and begin shooting, sit down with a notepad as you ought to know about the magical elixir of filmmaking and photography- the exposure triangle. 
Aperture, shutter speed and ISO are the three arms of the exposure triangles. They work hand in hand to produce the best quality of pictures and videos by giving them the right exposure to light. These three aspects control and regulate the amount of light entering the camera 

Aspect ratio 

Aspect-ratio

Aspect ratio is nothing but the length/width of a shot. It plays a crucial role in storytelling. Common aspect ratios include 16:9, 1.85:1, and 2.39:1 for video. Whereas, 4:3, and 3:2 for still photography. 
While there is no “best” aspect ratio, you have to choose the right one depending on:

  • delivery format
  • emotional appeal

The delivery format guides aspect ratio as per the type of platform where your audience is going to watch the video or where you are going to upload the project. For example, 16:9 is the best fit for Youtube and is the preferred choice by videography beginners. Similarly for shooting videos, the cinema aspect ratio (1.85:1) is optimal. For photography, the aspect ratio of 3:2 is ideal. 
Moreover, aspect ratio depends on the story you are trying to tell. To build an emotional pressure or add a similar appeal or effect, movie makers use aspect ratios accordingly. You can pick any camera that comes close to the aspect ratio of your choice. 

Aperture 

Aperture

Aperture in DSLR or CSC camera decides:

  • the amount of light exposure for a photograph or video
  • the look of your video - the depth of field  

To decide exposure, the aperture opens and closes to let more or less light in. aperture is defined in F-stops. The lower the number, the wider the aperture and more light come in. 
For the look and feel of the video, aperture decides the depth of field- the amount of scene in focus in front and behind of the thing in focus. 

Shutter speed 

Shutter-speed

Shutter speed affects exposure. It is a way to creatively blur or freeze motion in your production. When light travels through the camera lens, it goes through the aperture and reaches the shutter. Here, shutter plays the role of a curtain that blocks the light out from the sensor. When you press the button on your DSLR to record or click a picture, it lifts up the curtain. This is the phenomenon of shutter speed and is represented as a fraction of a second like 1/30th of a second, 1/50th of a second, 1/100th of a second and so on. When you increase the shutter speed, less light can enter. Therefore, shooting a video at a slower shutter speed (say at half a second or a full second), it will create overly exposed pictures or recording and vice versa.  
Hence, shutter speed is essential to create the mood of the video you are going for and can be adjusted as per the lighting in your surroundings. Remember that a slower shutter speed is equivalent to more light/exposure and is ideal while shooting in darkness. While a faster shutter speed lets in less light and is perfect to shoot in excess light.
To shoot a moving object, and capture a blurless motion, a faster shutter is best to freeze the picture. 

ISO

iso

The shutter speed, aperture and ISO is the dynamic trio in photography. Within this trio, ISO shows how sensitive your camera is to available light. A high ISO indicates your sensor’s sensitivity to light. When you increase your camera’s ISO it produces a very grainy image called noise. This noise is in the form of very visible pixels. If you aren’t going for that effect, stick to your camera’s base ISO (generally 60 or 100) to produce high-quality videos and pictures. Ideally, go for a lower ISO in bright light and a higher ISO in low light. But solely depending upon ISO for lighting/exposure is not right. Use natural or artificial lighting to properly expose your subjects.  

Frame rate 

Frame-rate

What are videos but a bunch of carefully placed still images? It is these images which give the appearance of “motion”, just like in a flipbook. Similarly, framerate is the speed or frequency at which the images appear in a video one after another. Technically speaking, it is the speed of images in succession per second. Movies play at 24fps.  
Frame rates are pivotal in giving those motion blurs which makes still pictures or images seem moving. The higher the frame rate, the smoother the motion and cleaner the details. 
In videography, there is no single frame rate and each one is capable of producing a different result. Choose a frame rate that best suits your storyline, the delivery style format and style. In the end, the frame rate in a video attempts to capture the world as we perceive naturally. 
 

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